Hey everyone!! Welcome back to my biochem blog 🙂 Continuing with Carbohydrates today we will be looking at Monosaccharides and taking a closer look into Aldoses and Ketoses. During our Carbohydrates Lectures and Tutorials we did get a well detailed understanding of this topic, so I thought I would just share what I learned with you all. As you may notice by now I tend to do about 3/4 reflections per topic instead of one big one because it just makes it easier to follow and more fun to read!! Lets Begin!

Monosaccharides can either be Aldoses which have an aldehyde group attached to one end or Ketoses which have a keto group attached to the C2. Aldoses and Ketoses can further be classified by the amount of carbon atoms present in their chain e.g. trioses- Aldoses (Glycerose), Ketoses (dihydrxyacetone).


Monosaccharides can also be distinguished into categories depending on their chiral objectiveness. Chiral compounds are said to have the same number of atoms arranged differently in space. Chiral compounds can be have a D or L designation. D & L designations are based on the configuration around the single asymmetric C in glyceraldehydes. Sugars with more than one chiral centers the D & L refers to the asymmetric C farthest from either aldehyde or keto group.


Continuing in Monosaccharides, we also looked at Hemiacetal & Hemiketal formations. I found this to be one of the most challenging things to get your head around, but once you read it over a couple of times you will get it. A hemiacetal is formed by the reaction of and aldehyde and alcohol and a hemiketal is formed by the reaction of a ketone and alcohol.


We also learnt that to differentiate between Aldose and Ketose you can look at the anomeric carbon as in Aldoses it is C1 and in Ketoses it is C2.

We also looked at some terms:

Sugar alcohol- lacks an aldehyde or ketone

Sugar acid- the aldehyde at C1 or OH at C6 is oxidized to a carboxylic acid

Amino Sugar- an amino group substitutes for a hydroxyl

Finally to sum up the Monosaccharides we looked at the Glycosidic Bond. We learn’t that monosaccharides can be joined together by a process known as CONDENSATION. In the formation of this bond two (-OH) hydroxyl groups combine one with a hydrogen atom and the other to form a molecule of water and with this ‘oxygen bridge’ being formed between the molecules it allows for a disaccharide can to be formed.

Phew….Finally!! This was a really long post; however, I tried to get all the main points in the most concise fashion. Hope you guys found this informative!! Thanks for visiting my blog!



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Biochem Jm Youtube- Carbohydrates

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